Emergency services were called to the allotments in Mansfield Road at around 9.30pm on Friday after a man was reported to have been seen starting a fire.
Roads in the area were closed as crews worked to tackle the flames.
Multiple allotments are believed to have been damaged.
As firefighters worked to put out the blaze, police spotted a man believed to be linked to the investigation.
A 31-year-old man has been arrested on suspicion of arson.
Once detained it is alleged the man racially abused an officer and threatened them with violence.
He was subsequently arrested on suspicion of assaulting an emergency worker.
Neighbourhood Policing Inspector Nick Butler, of Nottinghamshire Police, said: “This was a resource intensive incident that required a joint response from emergency services.
“Not only has this caused damage to several of the allotments but it would have also been incredibly concerning for the local community.
“I’d like to reassure residents that we quickly located and arrested a suspect in connection with this case and are now working to establish the circumstances.
“Action will be taken against whoever did this.
“The further report of racism and threats to an officer is totally unacceptable.
“We will not tolerate this kind of behaviour and we take it very seriously.
“We will be conducting a thorough investigation into both incidents and I would now ask the public to share any information they have that could help the investigation.”
Call police on 101, quoting incident number 868 of May 14.