The striker's total of 749 league games puts him in the top 20 all-time list for Football League appearances.
He scored 21 times in 56 appearances for the Stags and played in the title-winning side of 1976/77.
But in 2014 Moss was diagnosed with Pick's Disease, a form of Dementia.
A Stags statement read: “We are saddened to learn of the passing of former Mansfield player Ernie Moss. Rest in peace, Ernie.”
See who you can pick out in our fans gallery from Mansfield Town v Derby County
Supercomputer predicts the most likely result for Leyton Orient v Mansfield Town, Bradford City v Newport County, Stockport County v Colchester United and every other League Two game
Former Mansfield Town boss Mick Jones dies aged 75
One more new face in for Mansfield Town as early injuries mount?
Mansfield Town boss Nigel Clough proud of players and fans as Stags are pipped by Derby County in Carabao Cup classic
Chesterfield FC said: “Ernie was a hugely popular figure who enjoyed watching matches at the Technique Stadium with his family until ill health prevented him from attending.
“Ernie leaves behind wife Jenny and daughters Nikki and Sarah, together with son-in-law Stu and grandchildren Henry, Georgia, Erin, Finn and Callie.
“Our thoughts are with Ernie’s family and friends at this difficult time.”
Matlock Town's statement said: We are heartbroken to have received the news of the passing of former Gladiators manager Ernie Moss at the age of 71.
“Our love and condolences go out to all of Ernie's family and friends at this incredibly difficult and sad time.”
With Chesterfield Moss won the Fourth Division title in 1969/70 and 1984/85, playing 469 games for them over three spells with his home town club.
He was also promoted out of the fourth tier with Port Vale in 1982/83 and with Doncaster Rovers in 1983/84.
He won the Third Division title with Mansfield in 1976/77 and finished second in the Conference with Kettering Town in 1988/89.
Other Football League clubs he played for include Peterborough United, Lincoln City, Stockport County, Scarborough, and Rochdale.
Moss also turned out for non-league sides Matlock Town and Shepshed Charterhouse.
He then moved into management, being in charge at Gainsborough Trinity, Leek Town, Matlock Town, Hucknall Town, and Belper Town.
He led Gainsborough to a Northern Premier League Challenge Cup and Peter Swales Shield double in 1997, as well as a further Challenge Cup final appearance in 1998.
He also won promotion out of the Northern Premier League First Division with Matlock Town in 2003/04 and also worked as Peter Morris's assistant at Boston United and Kettering Town.