The 32-year-old striker, who reunites with former manager Nigel Clough, has penned a two-and-a-half-year deal at One Call Stadium.
He made 345 appearances in all competitions for Burton, scoring 71 goals and holds the club record for most appearances and goals scored for Burton in the Football League.
Clough said: “We're absolutely delighted to welcome Lucas to the club.
“He's a player who we know very well and has the unique distinction of having played in every position, bar goalkeeper, for us in our time at Burton.
“We're sure that he will become a firm fans' favourite, as he has been at Burton over the years, and will give us an extra dimension in our push for promotion.”
Lucas rose through the ranks at hometown club Huddersfield Town, making his debut in August 2007, before enjoying a brief loan spell at Northwich Victoria.
Stints followed in Scotland with Partick Thistle and Hamilton Academical before Tranmere Rovers captured his signature in 2010.
His impressive displays at Prenton Park attracted the interest of Stevenage, who paid a fee for the 6ft 1ins player in 2012.
Lucas made his move to Burton in 2014 and went on to play a significant role in the Brewers' rise up the football pyramid, from League One to the Championship.
A fans' favourite at the Pirelli Stadium, he won back-to-back supporters' and players' Player of the Year awards in 2018 and 2019.