Across Britain, police forces recorded 484 casualties from 460 e-scooter incidents last year – 384 of the casualties were e-scooter riders.
It is currently illegal to ride e-scooters on public roads outside of Government-backed trials, which began in certain areas last summer.
The DfT said the figures are likely to relate largely to private use.
One person – an e-scooter rider – was killed and 128 seriously injured following crashes across Britain last year.
The DfT warned many non-fatal casualties may have gone unrecorded nationally, because there is no obligation to report such incidents to police.
Trials for the vehicles, which are similar to conventional kick scooters but powered by an electric motor, started in July 2020 and are currently active across 31 areas in England.
David Renard, transport spokesman for the Local Government Association, which represents councils, said: “The use of e-scooters on public highways and footpaths outside of designated trial areas is illegal.
“Councils and operators are working together in these trial areas to ensure routes are safe for both users and other members of the public and thereby reduce the chance of injuries.”
The Government said ministers had written to e-scooter retailers reminding them of their responsibility to inform customers of the law.
Pedestrians and cyclists were the main other road users involved in e-scooter crashes across Britain last year.
There were 57 pedestrians injured – 13 seriously – and 21 cyclists, with a third reporting serious injuries.
The figures show 22 vehicle occupants, including cars, vans and a bus, were also listed among the victims.
Of the e-scooter riders who were injured following crashes, about two-thirds were aged under 30, including 118 aged 10-19 and two who were under 10.
A DfT spokesman said: “Safety will always be our top priority and the trials currently taking place are allowing us to better understand the benefits of e-scooters and their impact on public space.
“Evidence from the trials will allow government to consider how best to design future regulations and avoid the issues other countries have faced.”