The springer spaniels were stolen from a property on Station Road overnight on Saturday, November 11.
Two female dogs – including the mother of half of the puppies – and one male dog were taken.
The mother to the rest of the puppies was left behind.
A Nottinghamshire Police spokesman said: “Officers are investigating a report that three dogs and a total of 17 one-week-old puppies were stolen overnight between Saturday and Sunday, November 11 and 12, in Station Road, Selston.
“Officers believe that the suspects gained access through the garden and stole the puppies from an enclosed breeding pen.
“One of the dogs stolen is white all over with liver coloured ears and another has three large liver coloured spots down her back with a shaved back leg which was stitched two weeks ago.”
The dogs are said to be Kennel Club registered, micro-chipped and belong to a breeder with more than 30 years of experience.
Posting on Facebook, a relative said the owner was “heartbroken”.
She also voiced concern about the stolen dogs and puppies being sold on and has said nothing has “ever happened like this” before –springer spaniel puppies can sell for more than £500, meaning the 17 puppies could be worth more than £8,500.
Website Vet Street said “‘the first two weeks of life can be a hazardous time” for puppies as they are “dependent on their mother”.
Vet Street added: “During this time, the puppy needs to remain with his mother.”
n Anyone with information about the theft is asked to call Nottinghamshire Police on 101.